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Journalism ethics not an oxymoron
by Christine Tatum
This time each year, about 1,000 journalists get together to discuss journalism ethics. Yes, journalism ethics. As humorous as that may sound to some, these news gatherers attendees of the Society of Professional Journalists annual national conference are serious.
SPJ, the nations largest journalism-advocacy organization, is the guardian of an ethics code widely considered the news industrys gold standard. The code is a guide aimed at helping journalists practice their trade ethically and responsibly. Those who honor it do so voluntarily. They believe trust in journalism starts with journalists commitment to ethical news production, which is, above all, accurate, fair and independent of special interests. The Society doesnt conduct hearings about code violations, much less issue sanctions. Its leaders believe everyone is qualified to interpret the code not just journalists.
It was in the spirit of educating the public and helping journalists make more ethical decisions that SPJs top ethicists a committee composed of members representing a variety of media, journalism specialties and experience levels reviewed ethical lapses that occurred since September 2006 and stirred some of the most passionate debate within the industry. The committee grouped lapses into larger categories where journalists appear to have had the most trouble. For the first time, the committee is publicizing its findings.
The categories, supported by specific examples, are listed here in no particular order and may be viewed fully at www.spj.org/ethics : Political activism. A commendable MSNBC.com investigation revealed that at least 140 journalists contributed to political parties, movements or candidates. SPJs ethics code states that journalists should remain free of associations and activities that may compromise integrity or damage credibility. The code also encourages journalists to shun political involvement, public office and service in community organizations if they compromise journalistic integrity. Journalist/Source relationships. Journalists must maintain a healthy distance from people they cover. A former Telemundo anchorwoman reported about Los Angeles Mayor Antonio Villaraigosas marital difficulties without mentioning that she was dating him. Getting too close to sources sorely compromises a journalists ability to act independently, as SPJs code instructs.
Plagiarism. Its unclear whether the number of violations of this fundamental of responsible journalism is on the rise or if technology is making plagiarism easier to find. In a video segment on her blog, CBS News anchor Katie Couric read an essay after it was ripped off from The Wall Street Journal. A CBS producer wrote the item for Couric, who read the piece as if sharing her personal thoughts. Thats worth questioning, too.
News/Advertising relationships. Times are tough economically for the news industry, and many organizations are responding with problematic news-advertising hybrids. For example, the Philadelphia Inquirer runs a business column under a Citizens Bank label. Though the paper says the bank wont have a say in the columns content, the appearance suggests otherwise. Avoid conflicts of interest, real or perceived, the code states.
Fairness. Last year, SPJ awarded several journalists at the Santa Barbara (Calif.) News-Press an ethics award for resigning in protest of co-publisher Wendy McCaws influence on news content. That battle reached a new low when the newspaper ran an unsigned front-page story implying that the papers former editor downloaded child pornography on his office computer. The story fell far short of an airtight case and appeared to be bent on attacking the former editor more than serving readers with truth. Test the accuracy of information from all sources, and exercise care to avoid inadvertent error, the code instructs.
Photo manipulation. After the shootings at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, news organizations may have thought they were doing the right thing by altering photos that appeared to show a wounded students genitals. They werent. The image organizations edited out was actually a tourniquet. Photographs should be respected as a form of truth. Never distort the content of news photos or video, the code instructs. Image enhancement for technical clarity is always permissible.
The blur of news and entertainment. NBCs To Catch a Predator series is fraught with ethical problems, such as the hiring of a crusading nonprofit group to set up stings. Avoid staged news events, the code states. It also urges journalists to deny favored treatment to special interests and resist their pressure to influence news coverage. While these problem areas are cause for concern, they are, thankfully, exceptions to the rule. Thousands of journalists make ethics a top concern, and we commend them.
Christine Tatum is national president of the Society of Professional Journalists and an assistant features editor at The Denver Post.